The shoulder labrum joint is a structure made of fibrous cartilage in the shape of a ring closely adjacent to the acetabular bone. It deepens the acetabulum, therefore it contributes to the protection of the humeral head. The labrum and joint capsule play a key role in ensuring the stability of the joint. They protect it from the dislocation of the head from the acetabulum. The shoulder labrum is an extremely vascularized and innervated structure which causes severe pain in the event of damage.
Causes of damage
- Damage may be the result of multiple repetition of certain movements or acute injury. Athletes particularly vulnerable to this type of injury are weightlifters, whose training consists of repeated lifting of heavy weights over the head. Golfers and baseball players are also prone to high risk of damage to the shoulder labrum.
- A joint shoulder labrum tear often occurs in acute injury due to a fall on an outstretched arm.
- Pain preventing smooth movement of the shoulder joint during various activities or during sports.
- During the examination discomfort is felt at forced external rotation of the shoulder joint and the abduction of a 90° angle.
- Sometimes, a characteristic shot may arise in this type of injury.
- In addition, weakness of the rotator cuff can be observed.
In less severe cases, treatment is non-operative. Rehabilitation consists of increasing the range of motion and gradually increasing physical activity. If conservative treatment does not bring expected improvement, then surgery is necessary. Shoulder arthroscopy plasters the torn labrum. Rehabilitation increases the range of motion and strengthens muscle strength and should be initiated immediately after surgery. Special training can be begun 2-3 weeks after surgery and the outcomes are very good.